Author: Thomas Penn
Publisher: Simon & Schuster, 2013
This excellent book is Penn’s debut and deserves recognition as one of the finest books of history published in the last half-decade. Henry VII is not the most complicated figure, but his reign is somewhat mysterious and Penn, looking at Henry’s relationships with foreign rivals and allies, as well as with his own realm, provides at least a partial justification for what can only be described as the greatest tyranny in British history.
The depth of this work is commendable. By comparison Robert Hutchinson’s Young Henry (about the rise of Henry VIII) documents some of the same events, but in describing the relationship between the British monarchy and the Pope leaves out Penn’s account of the disputed trade in alum, which the Pope sought to monopolize and which England helped to smuggle to the Low Countries. This is important clarifying detail, inasmuch as it establishes an early basis for conflict between the Tudor monarchy and the Papacy, regardless of the changes in occupants in each place between the reign of Henry VII and the English Reformation.
Easily a five-star book and one which any student of 1500s England ought to read.
Author: Juan Williams
Publisher: Broadway Books, 1999
Thurgood Marshall, whatever your opinion of his specific policies, is one of the hundred greatest Americans. But any biography breaks down into two categories: factual narrative and author’s analysis. Marshall is very difficult to biographize because his career presents a dichotomy: his successful moderate positions at the NAACP and as Solicitor General as against his increasingly radical and much less moderate positions as the first Afro-American Supreme Court justice. This makes authorial analysis much more difficult because it presents inconsistency in character.
In this particular biography Juan Williams does an excellent job of presenting fact, but he is much better in his coverage of Marshall’s work at the NAACP than in his analysis of Marshall’s work on the Supreme Court. Marshall’s heroism as the leading figure in the quest for integration through legal means is drawn out through anecdotes, thorough narrative, and through examination of the documentary record. The research for this part of the book was extensive and thorough. This makes sense, because this was probably the more important part of his career in terms of the impact he left at this stage of his life. However the section on Marshall’s career after the NAACP–including his time on the Second Circuit Appeals, his work as Solicitor General, and his Supreme Court career–is shorted. Only a quarter of the book is devoted to this period; the research is less extensive, the interviews with former associates, friends, and colleagues less prevalent, the anecdotes unavailable.
In the end Williams seems to excuse Marshall’s newfound radicalism on the High Court by blaming his shortcomings on illness and bad temper. I do not think this is adequate; it may serve as a partial explanation, but does not excuse the fact that Marshall’s ego got to his head and that he became a caricature of his former self. It is true that biographers become attached to the subjects of their research, but a professional biographer should be able to make this point and make it clearly and explicitly. The reality is that there is a stark contrast in Marshall’s political and social outlook that develops later in his life–as he has become more, not less, successful–and it demands a stronger explanation than Williams gives.
This is still a very good–and important–book but it is only 4 stars in my eyes rather than 5.
As a side note, Marshall with one testicle would make a much better President than Obama with no balls.